since 1985 of release
Repair and car operation
About this Management
Mazda-323 brand cars — the introduction
Identification numbers of the car
Acquisition of spare parts
Technology of service, tools and workplace equipment
Engine start from an auxiliary source
Poddomkrachivaniye and towage
Automobile himikaliya, oils and greasings
Diagnostics of malfunctions
+ Works on maintenance
+ Box transfers/drive of wheels
+ Steering management/drive of forward wheels
+ car Electric equipment
+ Body / internal equipment
+ Petrol engines
+ System of greasing of the engine
+ System of cooling of the engine
+ ignition System
+ Power supply system, carburetor, system of injection of fuel
+ Diesel engine
+ System of production of the fulfilled gases
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Suspension bracket and steering system
+ Brake system
+ Wheels and tires, body, car coloring, care of the car
+ electric equipment System
+ Heater, lighting system, devices
+ Governing bodies and operation receptions
+ Electric circuits
Technology of service, tool and workplace equipment
Technology of service
There are some techniques of performance of procedures of maintenance and car repairs on which the reader will find references in the text of this Management. Following to it will make work of the house mechanic of more effective, will allow to organize in the best way and qualitatively to execute various technical procedures and is pledge of careful and full implementation of all works.
Nuts, bolts, hairpins and the screws serving for connection among themselves of two or more details are called as fixture. At work with fixture it is necessary to remember some things constantly. Practically in any fixture this or that type of kontryashchy and stopping adaptations is applied. It can be lock washers, lock-nuts, lock tags or a fixing compound for carvings. All used carving fixture should be absolutely pure and direct, with an undisturbed carving and not rounded corners of six-sided heads which the wrench is put on. It is necessary to take for a rule obligatory replacement of the damaged nuts and bolts by the new. Special самоконтрящиеся nuts with nylon or fiber inserts are not subject to a reuse, as at an otdavaniye lose the kontryashchy properties and at assembly always should be replaced with the new.
Prirzhavevshiye bolts and nuts for simplification of unscrewing and in order to avoid damage before an otdavaniye should be processed by special getting structure. Many mechanics prefer to use for this purpose turpentine which it is convenient to put from the special small canister with a long nouse. After wetting of the "become attached" fixture by getting structure before starting its otdavaniye, it is necessary to give to structure within several minutes properly to impregnate the oxidized contact layer. Strongly rusted fixture can be cut down by a chisel, is cut by a hacksaw or removed by means of special гайколома.
When cutting a head of a bolt or a hairpin oblamyvaniya on assembly, the rest of a carving part can be drilled or taken by means of the special tool. The majority of repair trucks can undertake performance of this, also as well as others (for example, restoration of the broken carving in carving openings), repair procedures.
Flat and lock washers at assembly should be established always into place in the same order and the same way, as earlier. The damaged washers always replace with the new. Between a lock washer and a soft metal surface (for example aluminum), thin sheet metal or plastic always it is necessary to establish flat washers.
Sizes of fixture
For many reasons manufacturers of cars all wider and more widely apply metric fixture. However, it is important to know a difference between used sometimes standard (called also American, or the SAE standard) and more universal in system of measures metric fixture as, despite external similarity, they are not interchangeable.
All bolts, both standard, and metric are classified on diameter, a step of a carving and length. For example, the standard bolt 1/2-13 X 1 has an inch floor in diameter, 13 rounds of a carving on one inch and length
In addition to the listed signs both metric, and standard bolts can be identified by a way of survey of a head. For a start, the distance between лысками heads of a metric bolt is measured in mm, whereas at the standard - in inches (the same is fair and for nuts). As a result, the standard wrench is not necessary for use with metric fixture, and on the contrary. Besides, on heads of the most part of standard bolts usually there are the radial notches defining the maximum admissible effort of a tightening of a bolt (durability degree). The more the quantity of notches, the is higher admissible effort (on cars bolts with durability degree from 0 to 5 are usually applied). The class of durability of metric bolts is defined by a digital code. Figures of a code are usually cast, as well as for standard, on a bolt head (on cars bolts of classes of durability 8.8, 9.8, and 10.9 are usually applied).
Also on labels of a class of durability standard nuts can be distinguished from the metric. Dot labels are applied to identification of durability of standard nuts, proshtampovyvayemy on one of face surfaces of a nut while marking of metric nuts is made by means of besides figures. Than quantity of points more, or the value of a digital code is higher, the admissible effort of a tightening of a nut is higher.
End faces of metric hairpins also are marked according to a class of their durability. Large hairpins are marked by a digital code whereas marking is put on smaller in the form of a geometrical figure.
Marking of a class of durability of bolts
Indentifikatsiya of a class
Indentifikatsiya of a class
Indentifikatsiya of a class
Indentifikatsiya of a class
It is necessary to notice that the considerable part of fixture, in particular a durability class from 0 to 2, is not marked at all. In this case the only way of difference of standard fixture from metric is measurement of a step of a carving, or a carving sravnivaniye with unequivocally identified.
Standard fixture often call also, contrary to metric, SAE standard fixture, however, it is necessary to remember that under classification of SAE only small fixture gets. The large fixture with not metric carving is fixture of the American standard (USS).
As the fixture of the same geometrical size (both standard, and metric) can have various classes of durability, at replacement on the car of bolts, nuts and hairpins it is necessary to pay attention to compliance of a class of durability of established new fixture to a class of durability of the old.
Procedure and order of a tightening of carving connections
The tightening of the most part of carving connections should be made with the efforts defined by requirements of Specifications, given in the beginning of each Chapter of this Management (it is necessary to understand as effort of a tightening of fixture enclosed to it at a tightening a torque). Below the effort of a tightening will be called also as the moment of an inhaling of fixture. The tightening with excessive effort can lead to violation of integrity of fixture whereas the nedotyagivaniye conducts it to unreliability of connection of interfaced components. Bolts, screws and hairpins, depending on a material of which they are made also diameter of a carving part, usually have strictly certain admissible moments of an inhaling, many of which as it was already mentioned above, are provided in Specifications at the beginning of each Chapter. Strictly adhere to the provided recommendations about the moments of an inhaling of fixture applied on the car. For a tightening of the fixture which has not been mentioned in Specifications it is necessary to use the card of the admissible moments of rotation given below. The values given in the table are focused on fixture of classes of durability 2 and 3 (more high-class fixture allows a tightening with big effort), besides, it is meant that the tightening dry (with an ungreased carving) fixture in steel or cast (not aluminum) a detail is made.
Marking of a class of durability of metric hairpins
Any fixture located on a perimeter detail (such as bolts of a head of cylinders, the pallet of a case and various covers), in order to avoid deformation of a detail should be given and be tightened in strictly certain order. The order of a tightening and an otdavaniye of such fixture is given in the corresponding Heads of the Management. If the special order is not stipulated, in order to avoid a curvature of a component it is necessary to adhere described below procedure. At the first stage all bolts or nuts should be tightened by hand. Further, each of them should be in turn held on on one complete revolution, and transition of odes of one bolt/nut to another should be carried out in a diagonal order (cross-wise). Further, having returned to the first to a bolt/nut, it is necessary to repeat procedure in the same order, tightening fixture for a half of turn. Continue to act in the same manner, tightening everyone a bolt/nut this time already on a turn quarter for one approach until all of them will not appear tightened with demanded effort. At a fixture otdavaniye as it is necessary to adhere to the described procedure, but operating upside-down.
Dismantling of components
Dismantling of all components should be carried out in such manner that at assembly each detail could be established on the former place and the correct image. Remember characteristics of appearance, in case of need make landing marking of the details which installation can be into place made ambiguously (to such elements the persistent washer equipped with a flute on a shaft) belongs, for example. The arrangement of the removed details on a pure working surface in that order in what their removal was made will be good idea. Useful there will be also a drawing up of the elementary schematic sketches or step-by-step photography of a component subject to dismantle.
At removal of fixture try to make marking of its initial situation on assembly. Often, immediate installation of fixture and washers on a former place after removal of the corresponding detail allows to avoid confusion at assembly. In the absence of such possibility, all fixture should be put in specially prepared for this purpose broken into sections and respectively marked box, or it is simple on the separate marked boxes. Such line of action appears especially useful at work with the components consisting of a set of fine details, such as the carburetor, the generator, the klapanny mechanism, the dashboard or elements of a decorative upholstery of salon.
At a detachment of electric contacts and sockets it is necessary to pay attention to marking of wires or plaits by means of an insulating tape with the put on it digital or alphabetic code.
Prokladochnye of a surface
On all cars of laying are applied to sealing of a place of a joint of interfaced surfaces of two or more details and serve for prevention of leakages of oils and liquids and maintenance in elevated pressure or depression assembly.
Often such laying before installation becomes covered by a liquid or pastelike sealing compound. Often under the influence of time, temperatures or pressure there is so strong "prikipaniye" of to each other interfaced surfaces that division of details becomes an exigeant task. With many cases dismantle of such assemblies is helped by an obstukivaniye them outside on perimeter of a place of a joint a hammer with soft the brisk. It is possible to use for this purpose as well a usual hammer, striking blows through a wooden or plastic pro-rate. It is not necessary to make an obstukivaniye of cast cases and fragile components. Whether at emergence of such difficulties always first of all check all fixture it is removed.
Avoid application for division of details a screw-driver or mount, entering them between interfaced surfaces as sealing surfaces thus can be easily damaged that further can be at the bottom of emergence of leaks. If a podrychazhivaniye of the "become attached" elements of assembly it is impossible to avoid, use for this purpose the handle from an old smetka, but remember thus that after all the formed chips should be carefully removed from interfaced surfaces and from within assembly.
After division of details their interfaced surfaces should be smoothed carefully out with a soskablivaniye of traces of a material of old laying. The hardened fragments of old laying can be softened previously by means of the converter of a rust or a special chemical composition then are removed from an interfaced surface with a scraper. As a scraper the piece of a copper tube with the flattened-out and pointed end in this case can be used. Use for this purpose of copper tube is recommended, as copper is usually softer than materials applied in the car that reduces risk of damage of an interfaced surface. Some laying easily can be removed by means of a copper brush, however, irrespective of the applied method, interfaced surfaces should become absolutely pure and smooth. If for any reason the interfaced surface appeared scratched, before assembly of components fill scratch with prokladochny hermetic. In most cases it is necessary to use not stiffening (or semi-stiffening) hermetic.
Councils on removal of hoses
Measures of precautions which should be observed at removal of hoses are very close to that at removal of laying. Avoid damage of surfaces of unions and branch pipes on which hoses as it can be at the bottom of emergence of leaks put on. In a special measure it belongs to procedure of removal of hoses of a radiator. Owing to various chemical reactions occurs "prikipany" rubbers of hoses to interfaced surfaces of unions and branch pipes. For hose removal first of all weaken a collar of fastening it on the union. Then nippers with the sliding hinge seize a hose near a collar and start to rotate it on the union / a connecting branch pipe to the right-to the left. Continue this procedure before hose liberation, then remove a hose from the union. A small amount of silicone or other greasing will facilitate procedure if it can be entered into a gap between the union and a hose. For simplification of procedure of installation of a hose grease an internal surface of a hose and an external surface of the union.
As the last resort, or in case of unequivocal need of replacement of a hose for the new end of a hose put on the union for removal can be knifed and then is separated from an union surface. Thus try not to damage a knife union metal / under a connecting branch pipe.
In case of damage of a collar of fastening of a hose replace it with the new. Collars of braided type usually weaken eventually therefore, regardless of their condition, as required it is better to replace them with collars of screw type.
The choice of the good tool is one of the main requirements for everyone who plans independent performance of procedures of maintenance or car repairs. At first sight the expenses connected with acquisition of the demanded set of tools, can seem too big, however at their sravnivaniye with the expenses interfaced to performance of procedures of routine maintenance and the elementary car repairs at car repair shop, will appear quite reasonable.
To help the average motorist with a choice of the tool necessary at carrying out various procedures on the care of the car, described in this Management, the lists of three tool kits which have been conditionally entitled as below are provided: a tool kit for routine maintenance and the minimum repair; a tool kit for the general and major maintenance and the special tool. The owners of cars who do not have practical experience of carrying out mechanical works, should begin with performance of the procedures limited to use of tools from the first list, increasing thus the qualification and gradually expanding a range of the applied tool. In process of acquisition of experience it is possible to pass to performance of more complex challenges, supplementing a tool kit available on hands. After a while the received skills will allow to start performance of more difficult works demanding use of the tool from the second list (for the general and major maintenance of the car). When your qualification will start to allow to save considerable means on independent performance of difficult repair procedures, it is possible to think of acquisition of the special tool.
Tool kit on routine maintenance and the minimum car repairs
The list provided below includes a minimum of procedures of routine maintenance necessary for performance and insignificant car repairs of tools. Acquisition of a set of the combined wrenches (with a usual rozhkovy head on one end is recommended and with cap on other), despite big cost of such set in comparison with cost of a set of usual rozhkovy keys, expenses will be justified, since these keys possess advantages of both types.
Tool kit for the general and major maintenance of the car
This tool is necessary at carrying out any operations on repair of the engine of the car and it is offered in addition to the first list. This list includes a complete set of replaceable face heads. At considerable cost, the set of replaceable heads brings invaluable advantage, thanks to the universality and convenience in the address, - in particular in a combination with entering into a set of various type drives. Of 1/2 inches are recommended to use preferably drives section (instead of 3/8 inches) since they, though are more expensive, can be used practically with any type of dinamometrichesky keys (in an ideal, the good mechanic should have at the order both such as drives). Cheaper alternative to a set of replaceable face heads is the set of tubular keys.
The tools being adequately expensive, not required regularly, or demanding at using of implementation of instructions of manufacturers get to this list. If the sphere of your activity does not include frequent performance of difficult mechanical operations, acquisition of such tool will be a bad investment of means. It is reasonable to get it by sharing the cost with friends or to hire in car-care center workshops.
Only those tools which can be found in retail trade or which are issued for distribution on representation offices of firms are brought in the list. Sometimes in the Management text you will find references to such special tools. Usually authors try to offer in parallel the alternative method, allowing to avoid obligatory use of the remote tool. In case to avoid use of the special tool it is impossible, and its acquisition in using is problematic, performance of the corresponding works is better for entrusting specialists of car-care center.
To the beginner mechanic in respect of acquisition of the necessary tool for performance of procedures of routine maintenance and car repairs can be offered some practical advice. By preparation for carrying out procedures of routine maintenance or the minimum car repairs it is reasonable to get the tool separately. On the other hand, in case of planning of wide works, it is simpler and more reliable to buy a set of the modern tool in shop of retail network. Set acquisition usually manages slightly cheaper than individual purchases and is often supplemented with the enclosed tool box. Further, for choice expansion, separate tools, additional sets and a tool box of the bigger size can be bought in addition. Gradual expansion of a set of tools will allow to stretch expenses and to be defined in a choice of really necessary tools.
Specialized tool shops are the unique source of acquisition of some special tools, but, irrespective of a source, avoid cheap purchases, in particular at a choice of screw-drivers and replaceable face heads as term of their service for certain will appear short. Expenses connected with replacement and restoration of the cheap tool as a result will appear incomparably more considerable, than costs of single acquisition of the qualitative goods.
Care of the tool and its storage
The good tool is a valuable investment of means, therefore it is reasonable to take care of keeping it clean and constant availability for service. After using the tool before combining it in a storage place, always carefully wipe its surface pure dry rags, deleting from it traces of dirt, greasing and the remains of metal particles. Never leave the tool scattered on a workplace. After completion of works attentively check space under a cowl and under the car on existence of the forgotten tool.
For storage of such tool as screw-drivers, flat-nose pliers, hammers the tool comb fixed in a convenient place on a wall of garage, etc. is ideally suited. Sets of wrenches and replaceable face heads should be stored in metal boxes. The measuring tool should be stored in inaccessible to impact of corrosion, dry and pure places.
Always it is necessary to pay attention to a condition of working surfaces of the tool. The shock part quickly a hammer in the course of work is subject to a rasklepyvaniye, screw-drivers lose over time sharpening of the stings. Do not stint to give a little time and attention to that by means of an emery paper or a file to remove расклепы and to put in order cutting edges. It is irreversible the worn-out or damaged tool replace.
At careful leaving the tool will serve to you belief and the truth during very long term.
Speaking about the tool, it is necessary to remember the workplace equipment. If carrying out more serious work, than simple maintenance is necessary, it is necessary to take care of preparation of the suitable worker of a platform.
It is necessary to recognize that many motorists are compelled to perform removal of the engine and other similar works far not in the conditions of garage or a workshop. However, in any case the important requirement is roof or awning existence.
Whenever possible, any procedures on dismantling of parts of systems of the car should be made on a pure flat workbench, or a strong table of convenient height. The workbench should be surely equipped with a vice. Existence of a vice with disclosure of sponges to
As it was already mentioned above, on a working platform the pure dry place for storage of the tool, lubricant and cleaning liquids, shpaklevka, paint and varnish materials, etc. should be equipped.
It is necessary to notice that absolutely necessary tool is the electrodrill, therefore, the working platform should be equipped with the power supply for its connection. Drill existence with the boss to 9.5 mm and a set of qualitative drills considerably will facilitate carrying out many procedures.
At last, on a workplace always there should be a sufficient stock of old newspapers and pure, not ворсящейся the rags, intended for cleaning of a working platform, the tool and car details.
It is necessary to hand over working off in the centers for utilization in tight container.
Never perform any works on the barefaced painted surface of the car, use protective overlays for wings, or, at the worst, cover the polished surfaces with old blankets.