since 1985 of release
Repair and car operation
+ Petrol engines
- System of greasing of the engine
Check of pressure of oil
Check of the sensor of pressure of oil
Removal and installation of the pallet of a case
+ System of cooling of the engine
+ ignition System
+ Power supply system, carburetor, system of injection of fuel
+ Diesel engine
+ System of production of the fulfilled gases
+ Manual transmission
+ Automatic transmission
+ Suspension bracket and steering system
+ Brake system
+ Wheels and tires, body, car coloring, care of the car
+ electric equipment System
+ Heater, lighting system, devices
+ Governing bodies and operation receptions
+ Electric circuits
System of greasing of the engine
Pollution of engine oil
Depending on service conditions engine oils are exposed to changing influence. Therefore it is very difficult to define impact of various conditions on greasing. The engines, working long time on high turns or with full loading, reach high temperature. Under the influence of high temperature and air oxygen oil starts to be oxidized. Products of oxidation do oil to more dense and can be postponed on the top part of the piston, in grooves of piston rings and on cores of valves. It can cause formation of a deposit on plates of valves.
Razzhizheniye of oil on petrol engines
If cylinders receive too enriched mix, the engine cannot develop the maximum capacity or too cold engine (a city cycle) is constantly maintained, the deposit is inevitably formed. The soot, the burned-down oil and other products, the not burned down fuel and condensation of liquid conduct to education шлама, acid and asphalt. Not burned down fuel settles on a mirror of cylinders and flows down in a case, the oil film on cylinders and pistons is thus washed away. Consequences: insufficient greasing of a working surface of pistons and razzhizheny oils which reduces lubricant properties of oil depending on amount of the got fuel. At too high razzhizheniye, probably, premature replacement of oil is required. As in the hot engine of a particle of gasoline evaporate from oil, it is necessary to supervise oil level, first of all in the winter (it is a lot of cold starts — the raised content of fuel in oil).
Viscosity of engine oil
Viscosity call resistance of liquid to internal displacement of its layers. Depending on temperature each oil is inclined to change of the viscosity. With temperature increase oil becomes more liquid. Because of it the stseplyaemost and durability of an oil film worsens. At cold oil becomes viscous, internal resistance to a friction thus increases.
Area use/classes of viscosity
On the cold engine oil should be rather liquid not to complicate work of a starter and at start whenever possible quicker to arrive in all points of greasing. It demands application of engine oil with the viscosity, the smallest image changing at various temperatures. Viscosity of oil has the same value, as an internal friction of oil, and SAE 30, SAE 10 etc. is designated on SAE system (Society of Automotive Engineers), for example. High numbers of SAE on dense, low — on liquid oil. Viscosity does not give idea of lubricant properties of oil.
It is necessary to apply all-weather oil to MAZDA 323 engines. All-weather oils have that advantage that they can be used both in winter, and in summertime. All-weather oils are based on liquid seasonal oils (for example, 15 W). At the expense of so-called thickeners oil is stabilized in a hot condition so for each condition necessary lubricant properties are provided. "W" in SAE system specifies that oil can be used in the winter.
Oils with antifrictional additives (legkokhodny oils)
Legkokhodnye oils represent all-weather oils with antifrictional additives so the economy of fuel to 2 % is possible. Legkokhodnye oils have low viscosity (for example, 10 W - 30. For them the unusual basis (synthetic oils) is used. Upon purchase of legkokhodny oil it is necessary to pay attention to that this oil was suitable for MAZDA. As the next classes SAE are blocked, short-term fluctuations of temperature are admissible. It is allowed to mix oils of various classes of viscosity among themselves if it is required to add oil and external temperatures do not correspond to a class of viscosity of the oil being in the engine. Neither in fuel, nor in oil no additives should be added.
Specification of engine oil
For modern engines application only HD oils is allowed. HD oils — it oils, whose lubricant properties are essentially improved at the expense of addition in them various substances. These additives cause stronger protection against corrosion, the oxidation, especially lowered tendency to education шлама in a case, the best viscosity, clearing and dissolving properties. Clearing and dissolving additives reduce not only formation of a deposit in the engine, but also possess ability to dissolve a precipitation and to divide them and other pollution into small particles and to hold in the case pallet in a suspension so at replacement of oil of pollution merge together with it. Quality of HD oil is designated on classification of API (American Petroleum Institute). The European producers are guided also by this system.
Designation consists of two letters.
The first letter indicates a scope:
The second letter designates quality in alphabetical order.
The highest quality have according to the SG oil API specification for petrol engines and SE for diesel engines.
Consumption of oil
Speaking about a consumption of oil in an internal combustion engine, that amount of oil which is spent owing to combustion process means. At all it is not necessary to confuse a consumption of oil to the loss of oil occurring because of a leakage of the pallet of a case, a cover of a head of cylinders etc. The normal consumption of oil arises because of combustion of a small amount in cylinders, because of branch of the remains of combustion and particles of products of wear. Oil wears out because of high temperatures and the high pressure arising in the engine. External factors, a driving manner, and also accuracy of manufacturing of details also make on a consumption of oil a great impact. The consumption of oil can make at most 1,0 l on 1000 km.
On reaching a boundary mark oil should be added surely.